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Nature of Science

Part 1: Measurements (8-23 through 9-17)

Part 2:

Variables

Organizing and Interpreting Data

Experiments and Surveys

Measurements test Friday 9-17

Review for the test

TEKS 6.(2)  Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses scientific inquiry methods during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:

(A)  plan and implement comparative and descriptive investigations by making observations, asking well-defined questions, and using appropriate equipment and technology;

(B)  design and implement experimental investigations by making observations, asking well-defined questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and using appropriate equipment and technology;

(C)  collect and record data using the International System of Units (SI) and qualitative means such as labeled drawings, writing, and graphic organizers;

(D)  construct tables and graphs, using repeated trials and means, to organize data and identify patterns; and

(E)  analyze data to formulate reasonable explanations, communicate valid conclusions supported by the data, and predict trends

 

Nature of Science Big Ideas

Science is the use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as knowledge generated through the process.

Some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.

Scientific hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power that have been tested over a wide variety of conditions become theories.  Scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple, independent researchers. The scientific theories, unlike hypotheses, are well established and highly reliable, but they still might be subject to change as new information and technologies are developed.

Scientific investigations are conducted for different reasons. All investigations require a research question, careful observations, data gathering, and analysis of the data to identify the patterns that explain the findings

Descriptive investigations are used to explore new phenomena such as conducting surveys of organisms A hypothesis is not required in descriptive investigation.

When conditions can be controlled in order to focus on a single variable, experimental research design is used.

Scientific investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Certain types of questions can be answered by investigations. The methods, models and conclusions built from these observations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding of natural world and can show how the systems work. Models have limitations and, based on new discoveries, are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

 

Due Monday 8-23: Create a cover for you Science Journal. Requirements: neat; name and class visible; reflects your personality/hobbies/interests.
Day
Objectives and activities for the Day
At Home
Monday 8-23

Scientific skill: observing

  • Explain the role and importance of  observation in the empirical nature of science
  • Define and select the definition for the term observation
  • Explain how observations are made
  • Compare and contrast the two basic models of observation
  • Successfully demonstrate the skill of observing a given event and/or object

Conduct qualitative and quantitative observations "Penny Observations"

Read "Nature Of Science Big Ideas" (above)

Be prepared to discuss.

Tuesday 8-24

Measurements; CI System

  • Successfully demonstrate the skill of measurement with the metric system
  • Successfully demonstrate the ability to use metric prefixes and units

Activity "Measurement of Length"

 

Read p.50-51 in the textbook. In your Science Journal create examples for the following conversions:

  • m to km
  • mm to cm
  • cm to m
  • km to m
  • cm to mm

Example: 5 cm=50 mm

Wednesday 8-25

Thursday 8-26

Friday 8-27

" Metric Box" activity

Practice

  • following directions
  • making metric measurements'
  • collecting and displaying data

Assessment: Completed box and graphs

 

Week of August 30-September 3
Day
Objectives and activities for the Day
At Home
Monday 8-30

Objective: Practice measuring length using metric units

Complete the Metric box if needed.

Online metric practice: Metric Practice 1 Metric Practice 2

Print and complete the Metric Length worksheet

In Science Journal, using a pencil and a ruler, draw 5 different rectangles and calculate their area (length x width) using correct units – cm2

For 6.3 only: At home complete the metric box and do as many items from classwork (see on the left) as you can.

6.1 and 6.2:

Complete class assignments if needed. Prepare for Metric Length Quiz (Wednesday):

  • Know the length measurements units and conversions:
  • 1 kilometer = 1000 meters
  • 1 meter = 100 centimeters
  • 1 centimeter = 10 millimeters
  • Measure length accurately in centimeters, then change the same measurement into millimeters (1 cm = 10mm).
  • Calculate area of a rectangle (length x width) using correct units – cm2
Tuesday 8-31 Practice measurements of length Prepare for the Metric Length quiz on Wednesday
Wednesday 9-1 (short class due to elections) Length measurements  
Thursday 9-2 Metric Length Quiz  
Friday 9-3 Discuss concepts of volume, mass and weight  
Week of September 6- September 10
Day
Objectives and activities for the Day
At Home
Tuesday 9-7

Students who passed the length quiz: search for science fair ideas

Those who did not pass: review length measurements

Sign and return the science fair letter - due Friday 9-10.

Those who need to retake the quiz:

Complete at home the following on a sheet of graph paper, using ruler and pencil:

  • draw a line. Measure in cm and convert to mm
  • draw a rectangle; measure sides and calculate the area ( area =length x width). Use correct units: cm for sides, cm2 for area
  • Memorize the following conversion:1m=100cm; 1cm=10mm; 1km=1000m. Create 3 of your own examples of conversions: m to cm (example: 2.5m=250cm); cm to mm (example: 1.7cm=17mm); km to m (example: 55km=55000m)
Wednesday 9-8

Objective: Practice measuring volume using metric units

Make a cubic centimeter box. Volume of rectangular objects.

 

Practice calculating volume. Find 5 rectangular objects and calculate their volume. In Science Journal, record the name of an object, its length, width and height using correct metric units. Calculate volume V= length x width x height. Remember correct units: cm3

Thursday 9-9

Liquid volume practice.

Immersion method for volume of irregular objects

Read p. 52 in textbook. Complete mini lab "Measuring Volume" on p.52

Be prepared for a practical quiz: you will need to measure volume of rectangular object; use a graduated cylinder to correctly measure liquid volume and measure the volume of an irregular object by immersion. Also memorize the definition of volume: the amount of space an object occupies is its volume.

Friday 9-10 Briefly review volume measurements. Volume quiz  
Week of September 13 - September 17
Day
Objectives and activities for the Day
At Home

 

Monday 9-13

Volume quiz: see information for Thursday 9-9

Objective: Practice measuring mass and weight using metric units Definitions, units. Practice measuring mass and weight - correctly use triple beam balance to measure mass of an object.

If you have not done so already, please bring the Science Fair participation letter.

Read p. 53.

Be prepared for mass and weight quiz: Memorize the definitions of mass and weight: The mass of an object measure the amount of matter in the object. Weight is a measurement of force of gravitational pull on an object.

Measure weight of objects accurately.

Know if mass or weight change if you travel to another planet

 

Tuesday 9-14 Review mass and weight; mass and weight quiz  
Wednesday 9-15 Measurement of temperature Study for the measurements test. In Science Journal: p. 54 Section 2 assessment # 2, 3, 4, 5, 7. Copy questions.
Thursday 9-16 Measurements review Review for the test
Friday 9-17 Measurements test.  
Extra credit: Make a chart to organize information in section 2 of chapter 2 . The chart should include a title with International System in it. It should also include pictures and information about measuring length, volume, mass, weight and temperature.

 

Nature of Science

Part 2

 

Variables

Variables Notes

Objectives :

  • Define or select the definition for variable
  • Explain the role of variables in the process of science
  • Successfully identify a list of potential variables at any given event
  • Define or select the definition for the three types of variables
  • Identify the manipulated, responding and controlled variables in a given event
  • Identify the important components of an appropriate research question
  • Define a hypothesis
  • Write a hypothesis using two variables
Day
Objectives and activities for the Day
At Home
Monday 9-20 Introduction to variables. "Helicopter Happenings" Record all possible variables. Sign, correct and return test.
Tuesday 9-21

Manipulated, responding and controlled variables.

"Three Kinds of Variables"

Complete at home if needed
Wednesday 9-22 Using variables in research questioning Complete at home if needed
Thursday 9-23 Hypothesizing: introduction and practice Complete at home if needed
Friday 9-24 No class - all school retreat No homework

 

 

Organizing and Interpreting Data

Objectives:

  • Define the following – graph, data table, conclusions, inferences
  • Graph both descriptive and continuous data
  • Complete a data interpretation for a given set of data, including data charts, graphs, conclusions, inferences, hypothesis and recommendations
  • Compare and contrast descriptive and continuous data
  • Identify and name the basic components of a graph

 

Day
Objectives and activities for the Day
At Home
Monday 9-27 Introduction to organizing and interpreting data. "Data Three Ways" Complete at home if needed
Tuesday 9-28 Making data tables Complete at home if needed
Wednesday 9-29 Graphing procedures. Graphing activity Complete at home if needed
Thursday 9-30 Data tables and graphs practice Complete at home if needed
Friday 10-1 Practice graphing  
 
Monday 10-4 Graphing : if needed, complete graphing paper with 6 investigations; "Creating Bar Graphs"; "Creating Line Graphs" Work on research report
Tuesday 10-5 Complete all graphing assignments; review data tables and graphs  
Wednesday 10-6 Tables and Graphs assessment (test grade)  
Thursday 10-7  
Friday 10-8
No school - teacher inservice

 

 

Experiments and Surveys

Objectives:

  • Write a detailed experiment report
  • Define a scientific investigation as either a survey or an experiment
  • Distinguish surveys from experiments
  • Design and conduct an experiment that permits an appropriate evaluation of a given hypothesis
  • Design and conduct a survey that will permit an appropriate evaluation of a given research questions
  • Identify the important components of a given experimental design
  • Identify the important components of a given survey
Day
Objectives and activities for the Day
At Home
Monday 10-11

Experiments: introduction

 
Tuesday 10-12 Design a pendulum experiment Bring textbook to class tomorrow
Wednesday 10-13 (Mrs. Jankowski is away) "Models in Science": read p. 21-26 in the textbook. In the notebook, copy and answer questions p. 26 #1, 4. Complete at home if needed.
Thursday 10-14 (Mrs. Jankowski is away) "Evaluating Scientific Explanations": read p. 27-30. In the notebook, copy and answer question p. 30 # 1. Question # 6 on page 30.
Friday 10-15 Discuss plans for the pendulum experiment  
 
Monday 10-18 Conduct pendulum experiment  
Tuesday 10-19 Complete pendulum experiment  
Wednesday 10-20 Complete lab report Complete at home if needed

Thursday 10-21 and Friday 10-22 Parent-teacher conferences

Next week: complete pendulum experiments and start on studies of matter
Pendulum Lab report due Tuesday October 26

Nature of Science